Lesson 6 - Tense + Aspect 6 Lesson


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Lesson 6: Tense + Aspect 2

시제와 상1 Tense and Aspect 2 았(었/였)습니다 [Lesson Created By KkOmA]

과거 시상 형태. 동작 동사와 결합하여 완결, 과거 습관 등을 나타낸다. 상태 동사와 결합되어 '과거 상태'를 나타낸다.

[Past tense form. Combines with action verbs and shows 'completion or past habit.' When combined with quality verbs, it shows 'the state of the past.']

1. "-았-" --> 동사 어간이 'ㅏ, ㅗ'로 끝날 때: When the verb stem ends in 'ㅏ, ㅗ'
2. "-었-" --> 동사 어간이 그 외 다른 모음으로 끝날 때: When the verb stem ends in other vowels.
3. "-였-" --> 동사 어간이 '-하'로 끝날 때: When the verb stem ends in '-하'

보기~
1. 자다 : 잤습니다
2. 먹다 : 먹었습니다
3. 공부하다 : 공부했습니다

참고1. '날마다, 자주, 항상' 등의 부사가 함께 오면 '완결'보다는 '과거 습관'이나 '과거 반복'의 의미를 나타낸다.

[With adverbs such as '날마다, 자주, 항상,' the sentence means 'past habit or repetition' rather than 'completion.']

자주 등산을 했습니다. / 날마다 도서관에 갔습니다.

참고2. '았/었/였 + 었' 형태로 '과거 완료'를 나타낸다. 이는 어떤 사건이 현재와 다른 '단절'의 의미를 나타낸다는 점이 '과거 시제'와 다르다.

[A form of '았(었/였) + 었' shows 'the past perfect tense.' It is different from 'the past tense' in that an event in the past perfect tense shows 'discontinuation,' which is different from the past tense.]

1. 지난주에 병원에 입원했습니다. The person could still be in hospital.
2. 지난주에 병원에 입원했었습니다. The person is now out of hospital.

예문~
아까 친구들과 같이 영화를 보았습니다. I saw the movie with my friends a while ago.
지난주에 부모님께 편지를 썼습니다. I wrote a letter to my parents last week.
매주 일요일에 청소와 빨래를 했습니다. I cleaned and did the laundry every Sunday. (참고1)
오전에 떠났었습니다. He left in the morning. (참고2)




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